TGO Reference Material

Stretching Research

1. THACKER, S. B., J. GILCHRIST, D. F. STROUP, and C. D. KIMSEY, JR. The Impact of Stretching on Sports Injury Risk: A Systematic Review of the Literature. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 371-378, 2004.
2. Herbert RD, de Noronha M, Kamper SJ. Stretching to prevent or reduce muscle soreness after exercise. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2011, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD004577. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004577.pub3
3. Stretching before or after exercise does not reduce delayed-onset muscle soreness Br J Sports Med bjsports-2011-090599Published Online First: 17 October 2011
4. Jason Winchester et al. Static Stretching Impairs Sprint Performance in Collegiate Track and Field Athletes Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: January 2008 - Volume 22 - Issue 1 - pp 13-19 doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31815ef202

There is good commentary on all this at Sweat Science  or elsewhere on this blog under stretching


 A record of some resources on balance / proprioception to which  I am referring  elsewhere.

Below-knee cast or aircast best for faster recovery from severe ankle sprain

Acute ankle sprain accounts for between 3% and 5% of all UK emergency department attendances: around 1-1.5 million per year. 

Ankle Sprains: An Uphill Battle

Interestingly, what makes a runner more likely to experience another sprain after the initial injury isn’t so much weakness, but a sensory issue. “After someone has suffered an ankle sprain, not only is the ligament structurally injured, the sensory receptors in the ligament are also damaged,” says Dr. Hertel. Those receptors are responsible for proprioception, which is a function of the nervous system that helps a runner sense where the foot is in relation to the ground.

The Effectiveness of a Balance Training Intervention in Reducing the Incidence of Noncontact Ankle Sprains in High School Football Players

Conclusion: The increased risk of a noncontact inversion ankle sprain associated with a high body mass index and a previous ankle sprain was eliminated by the balance training intervention.

How to Fix Bad Ankles

When you damage the ligament, “you damage the neuro-receptors as well. Your brain no longer receives reliable signals” from the ankle about how your ankle and foot are positioned in relation to the ground. Your proprioception — your sense of your body’s position in space — is impaired. You’re less stable and more prone to falling over and re-injuring yourself.

Green Exercise

J. Barton, M. Griffin and J. Pretty. Exercise, Nature and Socially Interactive Based Initiatives Improve Mood and Self-esteem in the Clinical Population

Conclusions: Green exercise as a health-promoting initiative for people experiencing mental ill health is equally as effective as existing programmes. Combining exercise, nature and social components in future initiatives may play a key role in managing and supporting recovery from mental ill health, suggesting a potential ‘green’ approach to mental healthcare and promotion.

Does Participating in Physical Activity in Outdoor Natural Environments Have a Greater Effect on Physical and Mental Wellbeing than Physical Activity Indoors? A Systematic Review. 

Compared with exercising indoors, exercising in natural environments was associated with greater feelings of revitalization and positive engagement, decreases in tension, confusion, anger, and depression, and increased energy.

What is the Best Dose of Nature and Green Exercise for Improving Mental Health? A Multi-Study Analysis.

Dose responses for both intensity and duration showed large benefits from short engagements in green exercise, and then diminishing but still positive returns. Every green environment improved both self-esteem and mood; the presence of water generated greater effects. Both men and women had similar improvements in self-esteem after green exercise, though men showed a difference for mood. 

- "Dose responses for both intensity and duration showed large benefits from short engagements in green exercise, and then diminishing but still positive returns," they wrote. It appears the effect was even greater in the presence of water, such as a lake, stream or pond, so perhaps it would be more accurate to say that the most beneficial environment is a blue and green one. Exposure duration: both self- esteem and mood showed greatest changes for the least duration (5 min), both showed smaller positive improvements for <1 h and half-day activities, and both increased for whole- day activities.

Science Suggests Access To Nature Is Essential To Human Health

Elderly adults tend to live longer if their homes are near a park or other green space, regardless of their social or economic status. College students do better on cognitive tests when their dorm windows view natural settings. Children with ADHD have fewer symptoms after outdoor activities in lush environments. Residents of public housing complexes report better family interactions when they live near trees.

Humans living in landscapes that lack trees or other natural features undergo patterns of social, psychological and physical breakdown that are strikingly similar to those observed in other animals that have been deprived of their natural habitat

Eyesight A new analysis of recent eye health studies shows that more time spent outdoors is related to reduced rates of nearsightedness, also known as myopia, in children and adolescents. (American Academy of Ophthalmology. "More time outdoors may reduce kids' risk for nearsightedness, research suggests." ScienceDaily, 24 Oct. 2011. Web. 24 Oct. 2011.)

Other Abstracts on Green Exercise