This is the summary, but check out the full text of this article, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
Recent studies have outlined LCD(Low carbohydrate diets) metabolism and shown that LCDs improve glycemic control and insulin resistance in healthy persons and in persons with type 2 diabetes. The instruction to limit carbohydrate intake, without specific reference to calorie intake, leads to a spontaneous reduction in calorie intake. In controlled trials for weight loss, the LCD leads to weight loss and improvements in fasting triacylglycerols, HDL cholesterol, and the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol over a 6–12-mo period. Clinical trials assessing the long-term safety and effectiveness of LCDs are needed. In the interim, the use of the LCD with careful monitoring of CVD risk factors and other variables associated with health appears reasonable.
The clinical use of and clinical research on LCDs have raised fundamental questions about insulin resistance and the regulation of cellular fuel utilization, as well as questions about whether dietary carbohydrate is an essential nutrient, and whether dietary fat causes heart disease. Because of their glucose- and insulin-lowering effects, LCDs should be evaluated as possible treatments for conditions related to hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance.
We emphasize that strategies based on carbohydrate restriction have continued to fulfill their promise in relation to weight loss and that, contrary to early concerns, they have a generally beneficial effect on most markers of CVD, even in the absence of weight loss. In combination with the intuitive and established efficacy in relation to glycemic control in diabetics, some form of LCD may be the preferred choice for weight reduction as well as for general health.