Carbohydrate restriction (with or without additional dietary cholesterol provided by eggs) reduces insulin resistance and plasma leptin without modifying appetite hormones in adult men.
Carbohydrate-restricted diets (CRDs) have been shown to reduce body weight, whereas whole egg intake has been associated with increased satiety. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of additional dietary cholesterol and protein provided by whole eggs while following a CRD on insulin resistance and appetite hormones. Using a randomized blind parallel design, subjects were allocated to an egg (640 mg/d additional dietary cholesterol) or placebo (0 mg/d additional dietary cholesterol) group for 12 weeks while following a CRD. There were significant reductions in fasting insulin (P < .025) and fasting leptin concentrations (P < .01) for both groups, which were correlated with the reductions in body weight and body fat (P < .05 and P < .01, respectively). Both groups reduced insulin resistance as measured by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (P < .025). There was a significant decrease in serum glucose levels observed after the intervention. We did not observe the expected increases in plasma ghrelin levels associated with weight loss, suggesting a mechanism by which subjects do not increase appetite with CRD. To confirm these results, the subjective measures of satiety using visual analog scale showed that both groups felt more "full" (P < .05), "satisfied" (P < .001), and "wanted to eat less" (P < .001) after the intervention. These results indicate that inclusion of eggs in the diet (additional dietary cholesterol) did not modify the multiple beneficial effects of CRD on insulin resistance and appetite hormones.
Second one is low carb in people with Diabetes (Type II). Limiting your carbs is a good as taking insulin.... Full study available
Effects of a low-carbohydrate diet on glycemic control in outpatients with severe type 2 diabetes
We previously demonstrated that a loosely restricted 45%-carbohydrate diet led to greater reduction in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) compared to high-carbohydrate diets in outpatients with mild type 2 diabetes (mean HbA1c level: 7.4%) over 2 years. To determine whether good glycemic control can be achieved with a 30%-carbohydrate diet in severe type 2 diabetes, 33 outpatients (15 males, 18 females, mean age: 59 yrs) with HbA1c levels of 9.0% or above were instructed to follow a low-carbohydrate diet (1852 kcal; %CHO:fat:protein = 30:44:20) for 6 months in an outpatient clinic and were followed to assess their HbA1c levels, body mass index and doses of antidiabetic drugs. HbA1c levels decreased sharply from a baseline of 10.9 +/- 1.6% to 7.8 +/- 1.5% at 3 months and to 7.4 +/- 1.4% at 6 months. Body mass index decreased slightly from baseline (23.8 +/- 3.3) to 6 months (23.5 +/- 3.4). Only two patients dropped out. No adverse effects were observed except for mild constipation. The number of patients on sulfonylureas decreased from 7 at baseline to 2 at 6 months. No patient required inpatient care or insulin therapy. In summary, the 30%-carbohydrate diet over 6 months led to a remarkable reduction in HbA1c levels, even among outpatients with severe type 2 diabetes, without any insulin therapy, hospital care or increase in sulfonylureas. The effectiveness of the diet may be comparable to that of insulin therapy.