Thursday, December 30, 2010

Advanced Glycation End products and muscle strength

Advanced Glycation End producst (AGEs) are interesting.   AGEs are the end-products of glycation reactions, in which a sugar molecule bonds to either a protein or lipid molecule without an enzyme to control the reaction.   Think about caramelised sugar.....

There is a good summary AGEs, where they come from and what they do here: What Are Advanced Glycation End Products?

Anyway, I saw this abstract today....the more AGEs in the skin the lower the levels of strength. 

Skin advanced glycation end product accumulation and muscle strength among adult men.

Aging is associated with decreased skeletal muscle function. Increased levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in skeletal muscle tissue are observed with advancing age and in diabetes. Although serum AGE level is negatively associated with grip strength in elderly people, it is unknown whether this association is present in adult males. To determine the relationship between AGE accumulation in tissue and muscle strength and power among Japanese adult men. Skin autofluorescence (AF) (a noninvasive method for measuring tissue AGEs), grip strength (n = 232), and leg extension power (n = 138) were measured in Japanese adult men [median (interquartile range) age, 46.0 (37.0, 56.0) years]. After adjustment for potential confounders, the adjusted means [95% confidence interval (CI)] for grip strength across the tertiles of skin AF were 44.5 (43.2, 45.9) kg for the lowest tertile, 42.0 (40.6, 43.3) kg for the middle tertile, and 41.7 (40.3, 43.1) kg for the highest tertile (P for trend < 0.01). Moreover, the adjusted geometric means (95% CI) of leg extension power across the tertiles of skin AF were 17.8 (16.6, 19.1) W/kg for the lowest tertile, 17.5 (16.4, 18.7) W/kg for the middle tertile, and 16.0 (14.9, 17.1) W/kg for the highest tertile (P for trend = 0.04). Among Japanese adult men, participants with higher skin AF had lower muscle strength and power, indicating a relationship between AGE accumulation and muscle strength and power. A long-term prospective study is required to clarify the causality.

So how do we minimise AGEs? 

 I was reading stuff here:

So based on the data above. We should cook at low temperatures for shorter periods of time. Do not fry your meat, stay away from high-fat spreads (that includes butter, however I'm skeptical of the data, because it seems based on these numbers olive oil is high too which I find hard to believe).

Basically the largest contributors to AGEs in the modern diet is anything grilled, roasted, fried, or baked. If you decrease the intake of any foods that are cooked under dry heat, then you are on your way to extending life. If you do cook meat its best to marinade it with vinegar or lemon juice (decreases AGE formation by 50%).


Steven Low said...

From what I remember reading, the body does not readily absorb AGEs from food because they are not the simple molecules that we absorb well namely simple sugars, amino acids, and lipids. Thus, cooking does not have a significant impact on AGE absorption even though food may have AGEs in them. (That's not to say we shouldn't avoid AGEs in food especially overcooked/burnt food -- we should because those foods increase intestinal cancer risk).

The main source of AGEs in the body comes from overconsumption of simple sugars namely processed and refined sugars in high doses giving that sugar spike.

Remember all of the posts on why carbohydrates seem to increase aging and other problems? This is one of them.

JamesSteeleII said...

Chris Masterjohn has covered this in quite a lot of detail commenting on Dr Davis' dislike of butter

I'm unconvinced that dietary AGE's are significant. Best way to reduce AGE's is probably to just avoid chronically high blood glucose levels and thus endogenous production.

Anonymous said...

I agree with the comments so far... endogenous AGE formation due to hyperglycaemia would be more of a concern than dietary AGE's (which I think account for only ~30% of total AGE if I recall correctly). The other one to watch is fructosylation... potentially more of an issue still.

serega said...

I cook almost everything (meats and veggies) in pressure cooker. Due the pressure water boils at slightly higher temperature, but still much lower then during grilling, broiling, or frying. Food cooks in a fraction of time compare to boiling.

Bill Strahan said...

Yes, perhaps the correlation isn't

higher AGE -> less muscle

Perhaps it is

lifestyle factors that result in high blood sugar and little muscle -> higher AGE concentrations

Of course, it's academic. The solution assuming one cares is the same regardless: Eat real food, and exercise, and do it in a way that chases insulin sensitivity as if your life depends on it...because it does.